Erebuni Fortress also known as Arin Berd (meaning the "Fortress of Blood") is a fortified city from the ancient kingdom of Urartu, located in what is present-day Yerevan. It was one of several fortresses built along the northern Urartian border and was one of the most important political, economic and cultural centers of the vast kingdom. The name Yerevan itself is derived from Erebun. Early excavations began during the 19th century while more systematic excavations were carried out at Erebuni in 1952. The site of Erebuni Fortress was located atop the 65m. tall hill of Arin Berd as a strategic position overlooking the Ararat plain and the main roads leading to the citadel.